2013年6月9日 星期日

Cycnodes Jumbo Puff or Cycnodes Taiwan Gold ?



On November 2011, Singapore held the 20th world orchid show, with the champion being an orchid from Taiwan. Undoubtedly, this top honor has inspired the orchid field markets in Taiwan to prosper. However, after the excitement, I could only feel sorry for the unfortunate fact that the information of the genetic background and name for this champion orchid is sadly misguided. The champion orchid of this year has been incorrectly named Cycnodes Taiwan Gold. Due to the phenotypic trait and appearance of Cycnodes Taiwan Gold being highly similar to the earlier hybrid, Cycnodes Jumbo Puff, it would actually be more accurate to say that the champion orchid should follow the name of the latter orchid.  In the 20th WOC,the hybridizer of Cycnodes Jumbo Puff, Mr. Chen Long-Huei of our nursery, has submitted an objection for this point. In meantime, Mr. Julian Shaw (from the RHS), in charge of orchid registration, and Mr. Chong-Yee Khoo, the judge of this show, have discussed this issue with us. At that time, since the objection was without clear supporting information, the issue did not follow further investigation. However, there has been some recent test data and relevant information to prove and explain the relationship between Cycnodes Taiwan Gold and Cycnodes Jumbo Puff.




Mr. Julian Shaw from RHS and Judge Mr. Chong-Yee Khoo

Disscuss with Mr. Johan Herman at TIOS
The following are photos of Cycnodes Taiwan Gold and Cycnodes Jumbo Puff, of which you can make comparisons


The 20th WOC Grand Champion Cycd. Taiwan Gold
 
Cycd. Taiwan Gold in the sales booth

One of our Cycnodes Jumbo Puff


One of our Cycnodes Jumbo Puff
 

1st prize at SGF2012 - Cycd. Jumbo Puff
 
Bandung Orchids Festival 2008 Cycd. Jumbo Puff
 

Cycd. Jumbo Puff from PineRidge Orchids

Cycd. Jumbo Puff from PineRidge Orchids
 

Cycd. Jumbo Puff from Native Orchids

One of our Cycnodes Jumbo Puff
 



our Cycnodes Jumbo Puff


They are very similar, and almost identical.

As mentioned above, we have checked the registration time of these two hybrids in the RHSRoyal Horticultural Society). The Cycnodes Jumbo Puff has been registered by Jumbo Orchids on April 09, 2001, but the Cycnodes Taiwan Gold has been registered by Orchis Flor. on May 17, 2004.
 
The search results in RHS register system - Cycnodes Jumbo Puff - 2012/02/06

The search results in RHS register system - Cycnodes Taiwan Gold - 2012/02/06

The search results in RHS register system - Cycnodes Taiwan Gold - 2012/10/30

After we have provided the DNA tests of Cycd. Taiwan Gold and Cycd. Jumbo Puff for the RHS, they have accepted the results and have made amendments regarding the error.



Please use this arborescence module to illustrate the genealogy on the kinship and descent between Cycnodes Taiwan Gold and Cycnodes Jumbo Puff. The father plant of Cycnodes Taiwan Gold is Cycnodes Jumbo Jewel, with spotted flowers, and the mother plant is Cycnoches chlorochilon, with one-color flowers (PS1). The parent plants of Cycnodes Jumbo Puff have one-color flowers. (Cycnoches warscewiczii X Mormodes badia).
If the offspring was pollinated with characteristic spotted flowers- Cycnodes Jumbo Jewel, the offspring should have high probability of a spotted flower appearance, but the Cycnodes Taiwan Gold is a one-color flower, even though it was pronounced as the offspring of Cycnodes Jumbo Jewel

In the past monthly routine meetings of TOGA, the registered name Cycnodes Taiwan Gold has never been seen in the past M.R.C., so the name of this hybrid should really be called Cycnodes Jumbo Puff.

*PS2










We can further prove our point with a more scientific method: DNA profiling. This test was held by Professor Chang, Yuei-Long, who is from the National Chia-Yi University of Taiwan. By using PCR instrument and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) technique, we can determine whether these two individuals came from similar biological parents, or the same parent. In this testing, we have also added two species in relation to these hybrids to create a comparison.



The plants of this test(Cycnodes Taiwan GoldCycnodes Jumbo PuffCycnoches warscewicziiCycnodes Jumbo JewelCycnoches haagii and Mormodes badia *PS3)

To avoid sampling errors, we've purchased a "real" Cycnodes Taiwan Gold for this experiment.
The PCR instrument for DNA profiling



 

L1

L2

L3

L4

L5

L6

L7

CYC. HAAGII(L1)

1.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

CYC. WARSCEWICZII(L2)

0.38

1.00

 

 

 

 

 

CYCD. JUMBO JEWEL

0.81

0.45

1.00

 

 

 

 

CYCD. JUMBO PUFF

0.31(2)

0.81

0.42

1.00

 

 

 

MARKER

0.01

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.00

 

 

MORM. BADIA

0.31

0.44

0.38

0.50(4)

0.00

1.00

 

CYCD. TAIWAN GOLD

0.37(3)

0.85

0.49

0.83(1)

0.00

0.51(5)

1.00

The test results of genetic similarity
 
According to the results of DNA profiling, we can see that the Taiwan Gold(L7) and Jumbo Puff(L4) have high similarities in gene background, with a similarity percentage  of 83%(1). Another testing is 88%. We have determined, by the result of testing, that these two hybrids are from the same parent.


There’s only the Cycnoches haagii (mother plant of Cycnodes Jumbo Jewel) that is different between the parent plants of Taiwan Gold and Jumbo Puff. Assuming that the Taiwan Gold is the offspring of the Cycnodes Jumbo Jewel, then the genetic relation between them should be much closer. By observing their genetic similarity between Cycnoches haagii(L1) and Jumbo Puff(L4), we see the similarity of only 31% (2). It is also found that the relation between Taiwan Gold(L7) and Cycnoches haagii(L1) is 37%(3). Due to the low percentages of genetic similarity between the Jumbo Puff and the Cycnoches haagii, we can determine that the plants are not “close” to each other. The parent plant Mormodes baida of Taiwan Gold and Jumbo puff , has similarities reaching at least 50% (4)(5). This result proves that the Taiwan Gold is not pollinated by Cycnodes Jumbo Jewel.

According to the result of the molecular test, Taiwan Gold and Jumbo Puff have high similarities in genetic background, so both of them should have been pollinated from same parent plant. Generally speaking, the Taiwan Gold and Jumbo Puff come from same parent plant, and they are from same generation, but why do they have different names? After Cycnodes Taiwan Gold has been registered, our nursery has submitted a request to rectify the name of this hybrid. Unfortunately, we didn’t have any scientific data and evidence to support the case at that time. I found out that the professor Chang could perform DNA profiling and we have discussed it in an accidental chance, which has led to this discovery and the ultimate proof of what we’ve been searching for.

To download the results of the DNA testing, please click here: http://jumboorchids.tw/doc/en.zip

The press release in WOC2011


Above all, the champion orchid is named Cycnodes Taiwan Gold. Although TOGA deemed this orchid was hybridized by Mr. Chen, Long-Huei from our nursery (Jumbo Orchids), we have never named Cycnodes Taiwan Gold for any of our hybrids or varieties. For this point, TOGA firmly believes that the champion orchid should be named the Cycnodes Jumbo Puff.



Reference Link, click here http://www.toga.org.tw/article.php?id=516

The breeding achievement of Catasetinae has been affirmed nowadays, and we have to thank some fellow growers and breeders to keep this achievement and receive prizes in various orchid shows. It is an amazing accomplishment for Mr. Chen Long-Huei, who has painstakingly hybridized this beautiful orchid and allowed us to have more selectivity. He has given us an opportunity to enjoy this special and bizarre orchid. Some of the orchid sellers and breeders find it hard to understand what the meaning of respect is, for the issue of hybridizing and naming. It will cause more negative influences if we can’t rectify the situation of incorrect naming, mis-registration or even pirating behaviour. If these kinds of situations continue to reoccur, it will definitely affect the development of the domain of orchids in Taiwan, and lose trust of naming or hybridize in international world. So, we shouldn’t take any chance and avoid the question already exist.

In the newest ORCHIDS magazine Oct. that is published by AOS, Mr. George Carr has expressed his special views of Catasetinae, and he has also pointed out the similarity of these two hybrids whether in his blog or in his article “Cycnoches species and hybrids”. The Cycnodes Taiwan Gold is a mis-registration hybrid.

In RHS, the new hybrid (species) registration is always based on mutual trust. This promotes a convenient registration process for hybridizers wishing to register their plants. If the registration is wrong, it will affect the RHS as they will implement stricter regulations for Taiwanese breeders. We would need to spend more time preparing all kinds of documents to prove the cross we made. To avoid the complications, the orchid breeders have to observe their career duties and seek truth from facts. They have to provide the correct information for registration, or the registration will be a mess and it will create trouble in breeding new varieties. From the breeder's perception, we will try our best to spread the correct information to everybody. If you have any questions about this, please give us more information to conduct more tests. All we want is only to pursue the correct name: Cycnodes Jumbo Puff. PS1In the blog of George Carr, the article TWO CLOSELY-RELATED CYCNODES, 

I bought both plants at the 19th World Orchid Conference in January 2008 in Miami. At that time I saw in Orchis' booth flowering plants of what were tagged by Orchis as Cyc. chlorochilon and they were in fact Cyc. warscewiczii so I am confident that this hybrid was made with Cycnoches warscewiczii not Cyc. chlorochilon.

PS2We had the request to change all our hybrids' parents from Cycnoches chlorochilon to Cycnoches warscewiczii in Jan. 2005.

PS3RHS give us the correct name Mormodes badia. Mormodes badium is the wrong name.

Special thanks:

  • Dr. Yueh-Long, Chang and his students of Department of Bioagricultural Science Nation Chiayi University
  • RHS
  • TOGA
  • TOBS
  • Native Orchids http://www.orchids.url.tw
  • Pineridge Orchids

沒有留言:

張貼留言